Below are the references for citations that occur elsewhere on this site.
- United States. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Acupuncture. By L. Lao, K. Sherman, M. E. Suarez-Almazor, K. Huntley, P. Khalsa, and J. Killen. N.p.: NCCIH, 2007 (Updated 2016). Print.
“Acupuncture is generally considered safe when performed by an experienced, well-trained practitioner using sterile needles.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates acupuncture needles as medical devices for use by licensed practitioners and requires that needles be manufactured and labeled according to certain standards. For example, the FDA requires that needles be sterile, nontoxic, and labeled for single use by qualified practitioners only.”
- Zhang, J., H. Shang, X. Gao, and E. Ernst. “Acupuncture-related Adverse Events: A Systematic Review of the Chinese Literature.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88 (2010): 915-921c. Web.
“Various types of acupuncture-related adverse events have been reported in China. Similar events have been reported by other countries, usually as a result of inappropriate technique. Acupuncture can be considered inherently safe in the hands of well-trained practitioners.”
- Macpherson, H., K. Thomas, S. Walters, and M. Fitter. “The York Acupuncture Safety Study: Prospective Survey of 34 000 Treatments by Traditional Acupuncturists.” BMJ 323.7311 (2001): 486-87. Print.
“…no serious adverse events were reported after 34, 407 acupuncture treatments.
Comparison of this adverse event rate for acupuncture with those of drugs routinely prescribed in primary care suggests that acupuncture is a relatively safe form of treatment.”
- White, A. “The Safety of Acupuncture – Evidence from the UK.” Acupuncture in Medicine 24.Suppl (2006): 53-57. Print.
“The risks associated with acupuncture can be classified as negligible, and acupuncture is a very safe treatment in the hands of competent practitioners.”
- Cherkin, D. C., K. J. Sherman, R. A. Deyo, and P. G. Shekelle. “A Review of the Evidence for the Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost of Acupuncture, Massage Therapy, and Spinal Manipulation for Back Pain.” Annals of Internal Medicine Complementary and Alternative Medicine 138.11 (2003): 898-906. Print.
“Although tens of millions of acupuncture needles are used annually in the United States, only about 50 cases of complications resulting from acupuncture have been reported in the medical literature over the past 20 years.
The current standard use of disposable needles in the United States (required by law in many states) has substantially reduced the risk of infection, which was an important concern in previous decades.”
- National Institutes of Health. Office of the Director. Acupuncture. NIH Consens Statement 1997 Nov 3-5. 5th ed. Vol. 15. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997. Print.
“…promising results have emerged, for example, showing efficacy of acupuncture in adult postoperative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in postoperative dental pain.
There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma, in which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program.”
- WHO. Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials. Rep. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002. Print.
“Diseases, symptoms or conditions for which acupuncture has been proved—through controlled trials—to be an effective treatment: [list]”
- Adams, D., F. Cheng, H. Jou, S. Aung, Y. Yasui, S. Vohra. “The Safety of Pediatric Acupuncture: A Systematic Review.” Pediatrics 128.6 (2011): e1575-e1587. Print.
“Our results support those from adult studies, which have found that acupuncture is safe when performed by appropriately trained practitioners.”